Project deliverables 

Project deliverables are formal documents foreseen in a contractual agreement between the project consortium and the European Commission. In an initial phase they include content description and a delivery date, however during project implementation they can report on many various research fields and take different forms. Most of the DryFiciency´s deliverables are classified as confidental and discuss scientific and technological activities, but some of them are public and cover other aspects of the project, including impact on the environment, knowledge transfert and project coordination. This page opens their public abstracts to the wider scientific community and industrial stakeholders and to any interested citizens as well. 

Publishable abstracts

  • D1.1 Report on the boundary conditions for the heat pump cycles

This deliverable describes the boundary conditions for the three demonstrators to achieve optimal overall energy efficiency, while at the same time maintaining high product quality and short cycle times. In all three cases, the sensible heat of the drying agent is used as drying energy and can be recovered by a closed or an open loop heat pump. The principal concept for each installation is characterized as follows:

  • Heat pump assisted drying (HPaD) will be implemented at the installation of Agrana in a continuous starch dryer. The closed loop heat pump uses waste heat streams as the heat source and supplies heat for the drying agent, which is air.
  • Heat pump assisted drying (HPaD) will be implemented at the installation of Wienerberger. A closed loop heat pump is integrated in a continuous tunnel dryer for bricks. It uses a waste heat recovery cycle as the heat source and heats the drying air.
  • Mechanical vapor re-compression (MVR) will be used for the superheated steam dryer at Mars Petcare. The waste heat will be directly recovered by an open loop heat pump (MVR) und used to deliver the sensible heat to the drying agent.

This deliverable specifies key performance indicators (KPIs) which enable a comparable evaluation and clear validation of the impacts of the three heat pump demonstrators. These KPIs are the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the heat pumps, the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) of the drying system, the Sensible Heat Recovery (SHR) and the Reheating Ratio (RHR). Based on these indicators it is possible to determine the CO2 emissions avoided in the integrated heat pump dryers, the reduction in primary energy consumption, the increase in energy efficiency as well as the competitive advantage in the form of reduced production costs. In the deliverable, measured values are specified that are necessary to calculate the different performance indicators for the demonstration sites and that are used for the benchmark against the initial drying system without heat pump. 

  • D2.1_Pre-market refrigerant HFO 1336mzz-Z 

This deliverable summarizes the analyses of the refrigerant for the closed loop heat pumps, OpteonMZ (HFO-1336mzz-Z) by Chemours. OpteonMZ is non-flammable and non-toxic. It has a minimum global warming potential (GWP) of <2 and is without ozone depletion potential (ODP). Therefore, it is not subject to the F-gas regulation and can be used without any further restrictions in the future. Chemours analyzed the refrigerant in regard to the main thermodynamic and transport properties. A special focus is set on the compatibility of OpteonMZ with relevant materials used in heat pump installations, such as sealing materials. 

  • D2.2_Refrigeration oil selection and analysis_Update 

This deliverable summarizes the results of the comprehensive research work undertaken by FUCHS and Chemours in context with finding the best pair of lubricant/refrigerant. The lubricant is used in the compressors of the closed loop heat pumps. It has to be sufficiently viscous and stable at high temperatures and it should be miscible with the refrigerant. The operating conditions of the high temperature heat pump are challenging, the main focus is thereby on the chemical stability and the viscosity of the mixture of lubricant and refrigerant. 

  • D2.3 Adapted and verified screw compressor for the closed loop cycle

This deliverable summarizes the results of the work of Bitzer. For the closed loop heat pump, a standard Bitzer screw compressor is adapted and further developed to fulfill the requirements of the high temperature application. It describes in detail the modifications and adaptions of the compressor.

  • D2.4 Newly developed and verified lubrication free turbo compressor for the open loop cycle 

This deliverable describes the design concept of a novel, oil-free, fully integrated turbo-compressor developed by ROTREX for the open loop heat pump system (Mechanical Vapor Recompression, MVR). It includes the design of the impeller and the gearbox and describes the fully integrated compressor design, as well as the results of the first test runs with air.

  • D3.1 Robust and extendable heat pump models 

This deliverable provides details on the numerical simulation work. The simulation models for the key components are presented, such as the compressors, heat exchangers, etc. They are used for the detailed design and dimensioning of the heat pump systems. During the demonstration phase, they will be used to develop improvements of the heat pump cycle. The modelling effort is tuned towards model robustness, easy extendibility of the components as well as efficient computation times.

  • D3.2_Configuration of the closed and open loop heat pump cycles 

This deliverable describes the simulation results of the heat pump cycle configuration. Various design cases were modelled and compared to be able to decide on the best configuration for all three demonstrators. For the closed loop heat pumps, four different water-to-water heat pump configurations were elaborated and compared regarding their efficiencies, costs and safety. The open loop heat pump will be integrated into a super-heated steam dryer. Therefore, this configuration is evaluated in detail. The result is a two-stage compression system which fine-tuned impeller geometries and de-superheating by water injection between the compression stages. 

  • D4.1 Layout of each heat pump system to be demonstrated 

This deliverable describes the integration layouts for the demonstration sites at Mars, Agrana and Wienerberger. Based on the space requirements, the overall layout of the heat pump integration was developed, it includes the definition of the hydraulic and electric interfaces of the heat pumps to the existing infrastructure. Also, the operation schedule for the demo plant and control strategies were established.

  • D6.1_Project Website  

This deliverable summarizes the design and implementation of the initial DryFiciency project website. The public site aims to present the work of the DryFiciency project to the general public, the scientific community, and the industry. The website will be continuously updated and extended with new functions and features.

  • D6.2_Initial Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication (DEC) Plan 

This deliverable provides a description of the dissemination, exploitation and communication (DEC) activities of the DryFiciency project with a special focus on period 1. In addition, it contains an analysis of the stakeholder groups and the key messages to convey. In its two annexes, the standard operating procedures for a) exploitation (E-SOP) and b) dissemination (D-SOP) are described in detail.

  • D7.1_Project Progress Update Report 

​​​This deliverable includes all dissemination and communication (D&C) activities carried out in the first project period, as well as a description of all communication materials developed for D&C.

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